BLOOD PRESSURE (BLOOD PRESSURE) Arterial blood pressure is the force that blood creates against the arterial wall. Arterial blood pressure is also expressed as ‘blood pressure’.
Types of blood pressure
Hypotension (low blood pressure): If the individual’s arterial blood pressure is below normal values, it is called hypotension. Generally, a systolic blood pressure 90 below mmHg is considered hypotension, but these values do not cause any discomfort in some individuals. does not happen. In such cases, this result can be accepted as normal. Orthostatic hypotension: Vasodilation in peripheral (peripheral) vessels cannot be restored immediately when the individual suddenly stands up or goes from lying to sitting position. Cerebral blood supply decreases and hypotension develops. This condition is called orthostatic hypotension
Hypertension : Blood pressure persistently /90 mmHg
or higher is called hypertension.
What is the Importance of Hypertension?
Hypertension is one of the most important health problems in the world today. Hypertension can cause a number of complaints such as headache and dizziness, or it can occur without causing any complaints. Although hypertension does not cause any complaints, it is one of the most important causes of stroke, heart diseases, heart failure and kidney diseases in the long term and is diagnosed only by blood pressure measurement. This is why regular blood pressure measurement is so important. If it is noticed, high blood pressure can often be controlled. Changes in eating habits and exercise often lower blood pressure. In addition, blood pressure can be controlled by using various blood pressure medications with the recommendation of a doctor. Approximately %46 of patients with hypertension are not aware of their disease. Only %20 of the patients who were diagnosed and treated are under control. Controlling blood pressure reduces deaths such as heart diseases and stroke, slows down the progression of kidney failure and prevents further aggravation of hypertension. What are the Associated Risk Factors?
If you have blood pressure /90 If you are an adult above mmHg, You may have common characteristics with many hypertensive patients around the world. These; high-calorie, fat and cholesterol-rich foods, having a weight above the recommended level, leading a sedentary life, not exercising or doing very little. In addition, the risk increases significantly if you smoke. In these cases, lifestyle changes will help control blood pressure to a great extent.
What Should Blood Pressure Be?
Normal blood pressure 130/ 80 It is below the mmHg level. Hypertension blood pressure 130/60 Although it is stated as above mmHg, ideal blood pressure should be kept at a lower level in some patient groups. For example, in patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetic kidney disease, blood pressure 130/80 It should be below mmHg level.
How to Lower Blood Pressure?Lifestyle changesSlimming: Obese individuals have higher blood pressure, and weight loss programs can both reduce blood pressure It also increases the effectiveness of drugs used to lower blood pressure. Having a healthy body weight is possible with adequate and balanced nutrition. Food should be rich in fruits and vegetables and low in fats, especially saturated fats. The salt content of foods should be low and in addition to these, adequate physical activity is required. If alcohol is taken, it should not be excessive.
Smoking Cessation: Smoking causes a significant increase in blood pressure. opens. In addition, the effectiveness of drugs used to lower blood pressure decreases when smoking. When smoking is stopped, blood pressure will begin to be controlled more easily from the first day.
Exercise: ) Regular physical activity is essential for a healthy body, especially heart health. Physical activity increases HDL “good” cholesterol, lowers blood pressure and the amount of fat in the blood. All of these also reduce the risk of heart disease. Regular activity also reduces stress and provides a healthier sleep pattern. Stress: Stress can significantly increase blood pressure. Controlling stress makes blood pressure control easier.
Medication: If lifestyle changes If blood pressure cannot be controlled with medication, drug therapy is used. However, maintaining lifestyle changes while trying to control blood pressure with the help of medication helps to carry out the treatment with less medication. If drug therapy is applied, it is necessary to be careful about the side effects of drugs and their appropriate use. The characteristics of the drug groups used in the treatment of hypertension are summarized below:
Diuretics (diuretics): They provide the excretion of excess salt and water in the body through urine. They cause a decrease in blood pressure by reducing the amount of fluid in the body in the short term and by reducing the vascular resistance in the long term
Beta blockers: They reduce the stimulation of the heart and blood vessels via nerves. As a result, blood pressure drops and the heart works with a lesser workload. ACE inhibitors: They prevent the effect of a hormone made in the kidney that narrows the blood vessels and causes an increase in blood pressure. Calcium Channel Blockers: They prevent the entry of calcium into the muscle cells in the heart and blood vessels. In this case, the veins relax.
Blood Pressure Monitoring
Measurement of Blood Pressure: Before measuring blood pressure, any clothes that are tight on the arm should be removed. The patient should rest for at least 5 minutes. Coffee and cigarette smoking before measurement can raise blood pressure. The person should be in a sitting position, the arm should be kept at heart level while the blood pressure measurement is made, and the arm should be supported from below to ensure that the arm is not tense. Two or more measurements should be taken at least two minutes apart and averaged. After the arm is wrapped with the cuff of the sphygmomanometer, the cuff should be inflated. Then, a listening instrument (stethoscope) should be placed on the inner surface of the elbow area of the arm with the cuff wrapped, to ensure that no sound of current is heard. Then, the cuff should be started to deflate slowly, approximately 3 mmHg per second. In the meantime, the first place where the heartbeat is heard indicates the systolic blood pressure value. The cuff continues to download. The level at which the beats are no longer audible indicates the diastolic blood pressure, ie diastolic blood pressure.
*Loss weight: 5-20 mmHg (systolic) Vegetable-fruit-based diet: 8- 08 mmHg (systolic) *Salt restriction: 5-10 mmHg (systolic) *Physical activity: 4-8 mmHg (systolic)
*Restricting alcohol intake: 2-4 mmHg (systolic) *PhD Suspending the use of drugs without consulting, changing the dose can lead to serious problems. *Medicines should be used in the timeframes and recommended doses specified by the doctor. . *It should be fed at frequent intervals, little by little, and food diversity should be given importance.
Semi-skimmed or even non-fat (light) versions of milk, yoghurt and cheese should be preferred. *White meat should be given priority over red meat, but it should not be overdone even if it is white meat. *The visible fat of the meat and the skin of fish, chicken and turkey should be separated.
Fish should be consumed twice a week, otherwise omega-3 support should be taken every day. *Eggs can be eaten at most 2 times a week, provided that they are on different days. *It should be consumed as boiled, omelette or menemen. *Vegetable dishes should be cooked with little water, oily juices of the meals should be consumed. *Canola oil should be preferred in meals and salads. Or it can be used by mixing 2 scoops of olive oil or hazelnut oil with 1 scoop of vegetable oil (corn, soybean or sunflower oil). Boiling, grilling, steaming, steaming and baking methods should be preferred instead of frying and roasting. Sugar and all sugar-containing foods should be restricted as much as possible. Daily salt consumption should be limited to 3 grams. Accordingly, salt shakers should not be brought to the table, salt should not be added before tasting the food, and pickled foods such as pickles should be avoided. In case of high blood pressure, meals and bread should be consumed without salt, salt containing low sodium should be used. *If there is alcohol habit should be left, at least consumed in a social way (1 glass of red wine, 1 double whiskey, etc.). To increase fiber intake, legumes should be eaten twice a week, whole grain (whole grain) cereals should be preferred. Even vegetables and fruits that can be eaten without peeling should be eaten with their peels after thoroughly washing. lt, men should try to take 3.5 liters of water and fluids. *Triglyceride and HDL in blood (good) Due to its positive contribution to cholesterol levels, exercise should be done in a way that does not tire the heart (such as walking, cycling). How did you find this article?